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INTRODUCTORY   ESSAY.                                 253
pcarance of Australian forms in the Malay Peninstda has been
alluded to at p. 103, and is shown by species of SlyKflium,
Bceckia, Mdakuca, Casuarina, Leptospermnm, Lvucopogon,
Tristania.) aiicl Dacrydium. It is a remarkable fact that the
teak, which abounds in some parts of Java IUK! in the northern
districts of Tenasseriin, is not known to inhabit the Malayan
Peninsula.
Jack was the first botanist who explored the Malayan Pe-
iiiužula. gome, years later, Dr. Wallieh visited Penaii^ and
Smgapur, ivhere he inac'o large collections : a part oi' Mr.
Ginning's collection was i'lso formed in Malaya. More re-
cently, Griffith was for a considerable period resident at
Mahicca; and it is from his notes and collections that our
detailed knowledge of its flora is derived. Sir Yf. ?\oms,
Mr. Prince, and Dr. Oxley Lave also added much to our in-
formation.
IT. Afghanistan and Behtchislan.
The great chain of the Kouenlun, which separates the Indus
and its tributaries from the Yarkand plain, is continued to the
westward, under the name of the Hindu Kush. This chain,
which has a westerly direction, with some southing, separates
the basin of the Oxus on the north from that of the Kabul
river, a tributary of the Indus, and from the Helraand, a
river which runs towards the south-west, and is lost in the
desert of Scbistan, not reaching the sea. The elevation of
the chain diminishes rapidly to the westward, but few accu-
rate determinations of its height are known. The Kalu
puss, near Bamian, is 13,500 feet, and the peak of Koh-i-Baba,
which rises close to it, is 17,000 feet above the level of the
sea. The Erak (or Irak) pass is 12,900 feet.
From the neighbourhood of the peak of Koh-i-Baba a mr-
ridionai chain runs nearly due south to the^Indian Ocean,
forming the watershed between tile Indus on the east and the
llclmand on the west.. The axis of this chain passes close lo
(fhazni, elevated 7726 fcqt; and to Ciuctta, 5540 feet. It